Driving back from Kansas City to Denver at the end of September, I decided to go north to Highway 24, avoiding the tedium of driving I-70 four times in one month. Happily, Highway 24 lacks political signage and goes by 4 wildlife areas. I didn’t stop at any of them, though I was tempted.

The one place that did stop me was one I didn’t know existed: Nicodemus, the first western town built by and for African American settlers. It was founded in 1877, the year Reconstruction ended. No surprise there, or in the fact that the backlash against Reconstruction was severe enough to drive black families from the South to Kansas, Oklahoma (Boley), Colorado (Dearfield), and California (Allensworth).black towns, African American towns, Reconstruction, Jim Crow, Exodusters

Nicodemus is the oldest continuously inhabited African American town west of the Mississippi, though only 30 people live there, most of them retired. It is also the only such town designated as a national historic site (part of the national park system).black towns, Exodusters, Nicodemus, African American towns

If you want to visit Nicodemus, the best time to do so might be the last weekend in July, when they hold their annual Emancipation Day celebration. At other times, it’s a sleepy, tiny town on the high plains of northwestern Kansas.

But it wasn’t always that way. In the late 1870s, boosters described Kansas as the Promised Land to southern blacks who could see the Jim Crow handwriting on the wall and wanted to find a safe place to live and possibly own land. Kansas attracted them because it had been admitted to the union as a free state after a bitter, bloody fight between Jayhawks (who wanted Kansas to be a free state) and Bushwhackers (who wanted Kansas to be a slave state).

The Nicodemus town company was registered by 6 black men and 1 white man a week before the end of Reconstruction in 1877, taking its name from a fictional African slave portrayed in the song, “Wake, Nicodemus!”black towns, Nicodemus, African American towns, Exodusters

As was typical of advertisements directed at homesteaders in those days, Nicodemus was marketed as the perfect place to farm and raise a family. What settlers found when they arrived shocked them: people living in dugout homes, treeless prairies, and less-than-fertile soil. Some, like Willina Hickman, cried when they realized the smoke rising out of the ground came from fires in dugout homes. black towns, Nicodemus, African American towns, ExodustersErnestine Van Duvall said, “They told us in Kentucky they were bringing us to the Promised Land. I wouldn’t ask no one to come here like it is. I just blown here; I just come here, and this is home.” Others turned right around and returned to Kentucky or other points east and south.

But those who stayed helped swell the town’s population to the hundreds, and it might have grown still larger had Union Pacific Railroad not bypassed the town in the late 1880s. Afterward, businesses began to move out of Nicodemus, though the town was still building a church and a school in the early 1900s.

Finding Nicodemus delighted me, and I would love to see it restored, to see people moving there again to farm. In this day and age, I don’t know what that would take. Town residents are doing everything they can to preserve the remaining buildings and keep Nicodemus’s history alive. A walking tour goes by the St. Francis HotelNicodemus, black townsand the First Baptist Church,which clearly has some structural problems.Some of the information in this post was gleaned from Nicodemus National Historic Site by Judith Fertig, published by the Western National Parks Association in 2003.

For more about Dearfield, Colorado, which celebrated its 100th anniversary this year, see my August 2009 post, “Black American West Museum, Part III.”

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  1. Restoring History: Black Towns October 12, 2010 at 5:20 pm - Reply

    […] kind and read my post about Nicodemus, the oldest continually inhabited African American town in the United States, and the only one that is a national historic […]

  2. Boomergirl October 12, 2010 at 5:45 pm - Reply

    Hi Beth,
    Found you and your site via Twitter. Very interesting to read your latest post of Nicodemus, Kansas and its national historic site designation. One of Canada’s early black settlements is a national historic site in this country. The Elgin Settlement is aka Buxton. I know the curator and her husband who is a farmer and published author. I remember him telling me working the fields on his combine often inspires him. http://www.buxtonmuseum.com/history/hist-ELGIN.html Close Another early black settlement in southwestern Ontario is Dresden. It is home to Uncle Tom’s Cabin. http://www.uncletomscabin.org/history.htm I’ve been to Dresden but never Buxton which has a big homecoming every year. I’ve been told it attracts hundreds of descendants every year.

  3. Beth Partin October 12, 2010 at 8:54 pm - Reply

    Boomergirl, thanks for visiting! That’s cool to learn about black towns in Canada. I assume they began much earlier than any of the towns in the United States. Perhaps they were founded by slaves escaping on the Underground Railroad?

  4. How to Find Barbie Dolls in Kansas October 19, 2010 at 1:53 pm - Reply

    […] week it was Nicodemus; this week it’s Colby, Kansas, right where Highway 24 runs into I-70. I went there for one […]

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